Thursday, August 22, 2013

Hotel & Restaurant Management

Hotel and Restaurant Management

(Rooms Division- Front Desk Department)

A hotel or resort’s main purpose is to be able to accommodate a person or group of persons in a property or facility, whether it is privately owned or franchised.  Accommodating a person whom we call “guest,” needs to go through certain process in order to stay in a hotel or resort. The process when departmentalized depending on the size of the hotel/resort will have departments like: Front Office, Housekeeping, Laundry, Food & Beverage, Outside Catering, Kitchen, Bakery, Finance, Purchasing, Receiving, Security, Engineering, Sales & Marketing Department and other services the hotel has to offer. Hotel’s sub-department like, Front Desk, Housekeeping and Laundry when combined together is called Rooms Division. Food & Beverage such as Restaurant, Ballroom, Pool Bar, Outside Catering Unit, Kitchen and Bakery are all under the Food & Beverage Department.  Purchasing, Receiving, and Security usually falls under the Finance Department. Engineering such as carpentry, plumbing, painting, electrical, technician, landscaping, gardening and upholstery will all be under the Engineering Department. Artists work under Sales & Marketing. Therefore the five major departments in the hotel will be Rooms Division, Food & Beverage, Finance, Sales & Marketing and Engineering. As mentioned previously, the creation of departments in a hotel depends entirely on the size and services the hotel or resort has to offer.

Rooms Division

Rooms Division is normally managed by the Rooms Division Manager. As mentioned earlier, the departments under Rooms Division are Front Desk, Housekeeping and Laundry. In other hotel Housekeeping and Laundry are combined in one department which is Housekeeping Department.

Front Desk Department

Front Office in a larger scale hotel has sections in the department such as; Reception, Cashier, Reservation, PABX, Concierge and Guest Relation Officer. Positions held at the Front Office are Front Office Manager, Assistant Front Office Manager, Guest Relation Officer, Duty Manager, Reservation Supervisor, Reservation Agent, Telephone Operator, Guest Service Agent or Front Desk Receptionist, Cashier, Bell Service Supervisor, Bellman, Doorman and other positions that have been created based on the service the hotel can offer.

Front Desk Manager’s primary responsibility is to make sure that guest’s stay is satisfactory and with good impression of the hotel. He or She is responsible for the administration and operation of the department as well as hiring, coaching, training and evaluating of employees in the department. Customer service should come naturally with the Front Desk Manager. The important attributes that the FDM should possess and carried throughout all the Front Desk employees for training and implementation are greeting guests with warm welcome, sweet smile, eye contact and a hospitality attitude. In addition to that is the ability to deal with guest complaints or issues, courteous handling of phone calls, knowledge of services available in other departments for proper billing and discounts, close coordination with other department for possible guest requests for special service, ability to market the hotel, knowledge of related revenue issues, collection and reconciliation of receipts on a daily basis, compilation of reports, knowledge of accounts payable and receivables, sorting and processing of guest mails, knowledge of payroll preparation( usually being handled by FDM & AFDM), should be organized, familiar with booking, computer systems operation and other matters that maybe related in the smooth operation and administration of Front Desk Department.  Front Desk Manager should be personable and dressed professionally as one of the key representative of the hotel.

Assistant Front Desk Manager assists the FOM in the operation of the Front Desk, Cashier, Reservation & PABX, Bell Service/ Concierge, Guest Service Agent and other positions created for the smooth operation of Front Office Department.

Reception usually has employees called Guest Service Agent or Front Desk Receptionist.  GSA/ FDR are the equivalent of customer service in a company. Their main responsibility is to meet the needs of all guests staying in the hotel, greeting guests upon entry to the hotel, does the registration of guest check in as well as handling of guest check out, handling of guest folio reflecting the charges made during guest stay. Listens, answers questions, handles and re-direct guest request accordingly without delay to ensure guest satisfaction. Job functions and atmosphere may vary in many ways depending on the hotel brand, size and location.

Cashier collects money from guest in payment of their accommodation and any fee that they may have incurred while staying in the hotel. Fees like car parking, computer usage, room service, laundry service, facsimile and many other services offered in the hotel. Cashier has to ensure that guest inquiries on fees and hotel services are answered accurately and promptly. Handles and records all guest financial transactions during their stay. A hotel cashier should be able to accurately calculate room rates, discounts and add up room and auxiliary charges with the use of adding machine or any equipment for accuracy. Hotel cashier is responsible for the processing of cash, debit card and credit card transactions for guest and may also be responsible for preparing and submitting daily bank deposits. Hotel cashier should be competent in answering guest questions or concerns regarding charges on their bills. Hotel cashier guarantees security of contents of safety deposit boxes. He should have good skills in customer service and good relationship with the hotel staff.

Concierge is responsible for the transport of guest luggage to the assigned room. Extends hospitality gestures, opens door for the guest upon check in and hand over the room key to the guest. Assists guest in loading and unloading of guest items or luggage and ensures guest’s easy access to handcuff accessories or wheel chair. Delivers guest daily newspaper, letter/ or mail to the room and even run errands for guest. Arrange sightseeing, travel, tours, dining and others. Make reservation for patron and obtain tickets for them. Receive and store guest luggage if necessary. He also performs other duties in the office as requested. Provide information about events, recreational facilities in the hotel or outside, shopping malls or other locations.

Reservation and PABX receives and records guest/s booking of specific dates of arrival and departure. He responds to e-mails and electronic reservation.  Keep track of guest’s reservation to make sure that guest’s specific requests are communicated properly to the concerned department. Requests such as type of room, type of bed, either smoking or non-smoking, available sofa bed or reclining chair, refrigerator, microwave, iron & ironing board etc. and most especially available room with handicap accessibility.  PABX is an acronym for private automatic branch exchange which is the telephone switching system within an enterprise. This is the switchboard system at the Front Office where all calls especially from outside the hotel passes through and re-connected to other extensions of the hotel. Telephone operators are responsible in the answering and monitoring of the calls received and calls made.

Guest Relation Officer should have excellent interpersonal skills in order to be able to interact with hotel guests, visitors and employees of the hotel. He should be friendly, approachable and with good communication skills.GRO extends warm welcome to the guests and ensures that guest receives personal attention upon arrival. GRO should also be present in the hotel lobby to bid farewell to the guest on their departure. He/She is involved in the hotels promotion, sales and marketing strategies. As hotel representative, he should project a presentable image, positive attitude and good manners to the guests. GRO should be knowledgeable on Front Desk operation as a whole which includes reservation, cashiering, concierge, reception and most especially acts as Duty Manager in the absence of the Front Office Manager or her/his assistant.

Duty Manager acts as Manager of the hotel in the absence of the General Manager or Assistant General Manager.  He usually starts his shift after or before the GM or AGM shifts finishes. Duty Manager should know the hotel as well as other department’s policies and procedures. It is of utmost importance that he knows the emergency contact numbers like police department, fire department, hospitals, General Manager’s contact number and other department heads that may be needed in certain situations or circumstances. He should be able to contact employee’s in-charge of each department in case of guest needs of certain service or keys to unlock doors especially for unavailable items that needs to be taken out from the main storage. Duty Manager should act and make decisions for the welfare of the guests, employees and the hotel. He should be responsible and able to lead employees towards the success of the hotel operation. Duty Manager usually has forms or reports to fill-up regarding special events or comments that occurred during his/her shift. A copy of the report is usually given to concerned department that he had decisions made in particular that requires follow-up or awareness.

There are two types of Housekeeping Budget, Operational and Capital Expenditure.

1)   Operational Budget

Operational Budget is the allocation of specific amount as expenditure for the smooth operation of the department whether on a daily, weekly, monthly and/or yearly basis. In the Types of Housekeeping Budget
case of hotel operation, control of expenses is based on the occupancy percentage.  The budgeted amount for the month can be variable since there are times occupancy can vary especially in areas or countries where forecasting of occupancy percentage can be reliable.

The  basic Housekeeping Operational Budget is as follows:
     a)      Linen & Towels

b)      Guest Supplies and Amenities

c)       Cleaning Supplies

d)      Laundry Supplies

e)      Machine, Tools & Equipment

f)       Staffing

Housekeeping budget depend on the function of the hotel and what areas are assigned under the responsibility of the Housekeeping Department.

There are budgeted items or sections of the department that are usually divided between other departments.
      a)      Repairs and Maintenance

This type of operational budget is being charged between Housekeeping and Engineering or Maintenance Department.

b)      Uniform Budget

Uniform expenses are prepared by the Executive Housekeeper in coordination with other uniformed departments. Style and color coordination of the uniform is also discussed with each of the uniformed departments and seek the approval of the General Manager and then charged to each department accordingly.

c)       Decoration Budget

One of the most important roles of Housekeeping is to beautify the hotel and decoration is one of the functions of Housekeeping. Decoration can be flower arrangements either fresh or artificial flower, picture frames, statuary, carvings, tapestry, elegant chandeliers or many others. Decorations can be prepared by Housekeeping but delivered to be used by other department. Therefore, the expenses incurred once identified is charged accordingly.

d)      Stationeries and Office Supplies Budget

This budget is usually divided between Front Office and Housekeeping Department. An example of this is the forms used by the two departments for written communication and vital documentation of the operation.

e)      Miscellaneous

These are expenses which are not identified and not related to any of the operational budget mentioned.

f)       Landscaping & Gardening

g)      Flower Shop
 A good example of this is like forms being used between Front Desk and Housekeeping for smooth communication and documentation of the operation. Therefore the expenses incurred in the preparation and printing of the form is divided between the two department based on consumption during the requisition process made by each one of them.

Another example is when the section assigned to Housekeeping is a function that is described as part of Housekeeping and partly to another department. To cite an example for this one is when Upholstery shop has been assigned to Housekeeping.  When an upholsterer works on upholstery of a chair for the Food and Beverage Restaurant, the labor and materials or any expenses incurred to finish the job is then charged to Food and Beverage Department.
Decoration budget is one of the functions of the Housekeeping. Decoration can be expressed in flowers whether it be fresh or artificial flowers. It can be picture frames, statuary, carvings, tapestry and many others

Landscape and Gardening budget plays an important fa├žade in the beautification of the hotel inside and outside the hotel.
 Laundry is also part of Housekeeping budget; calculation of laundry budget is based on the consumption of dry cleaning solvent, laundry detergent, softener and bleach. Laundry budget is composed of Laundry cleaning agent, staffing, washer and dryer maintenance and miscellaneous expenses to operate the laundry.  In case of a hotel with in-house laundry, it will need additional dry cleaning machine with the dry cleaning fluid, a sorting/ marking machine, folding machine like calendar, bigger washer, more tumble dryer, dry cleaning list and laundry list for the guest and provided in guestrooms, laundry and dry cleaning bags also provided in the rooms, linen carts, movable hanger rods and many others that helps in the smooth operation of Laundry.

2. Capital Expenditure Budget.

CAPEX or Capital Expenditure is the allocation of much bigger funds and usually a one time expense for the year or yearly depending on the approved project and yearly budget. A proposed CAPEX budget can be replacement of 5 Housekeeper's cart every year for five years, which means a fund for a total cost of five carts will be allocated as CAPEX budget every year for five years. Another example of CAPEX budget is replacement of room's curtain per floor, the Executive Housekeeper will then do the canvassing of total cost of curtains per floor and submit the amount to the Finance Department with a reasonable mark-up in case cost goes up till the budget gets approved.
There are lots of projects that can be considered Capital expense project.

Basically, housekeeping has to submit 1) Operational Budget and 2) Capital Expenditure Budget.

Leadership Attributes


Leadership is defined as being able to direct others to do what is expected of him/her to accomplish.  A leader should be able to plan, organize, delegate and control. Without these four basic attributes of managing people it will be impossible for a good leader to succeed. A leader is considered  a model for whatever has to be accomplished. He cannot put up a policy and then be the first one to break it. He should be able to lead through example.

The four basic attributes of a leader are:

1.       Planning – this means that a leader should be able to have answers to the following questions: “What has to be done?” “Who has to do it?” “Why should this be done?” “When should this be done?”

2.       Organizing – once the four questions on planning have been answered then the final question to answer is “How should it be done?” In this second attribute the leader should be able to prepare all the necessary materials, program or schedule in order to be ready for the next step.

3.       Delegating – means to be able to assign tasks or authority to others.

4.       Control and Measurement - being able to ensure that the task is done according to the set plan where the five questions were accomplished without flaws.

Things to remember about leadership

1.       Be a role model to your subordinate and others.

2.       Always be consistent and firm when leading people.  Use flexibility with caution.

3.       Be fair and balance with your decision.

4.       Not all bad behavior can be summoned to bad attitude.  A person’s behavior varies according to individual impulses sent to the brain and has a physical reaction to the behavior. An attitude is an ingrained or molded behavior. (Say for example, a subordinate suddenly became rude to the supervisor and after talking to the subordinate, it was revealed that she was rude because the supervisor forgot to invite her to the supervisor’s birthday party. This is an example of bad behavior but not considered bad attitude since the subordinate had good relationship with the supervisor after airing out her grudges.)

5.       Avoid listening to second hand information from others about your colleague or subordinate.

6.       Always bear in mind the saying “Do not do to others what you do not want others to do to you.”

7.       Listen to others opinion without being rude.

8.       Try to empower your subordinate.

9.       Not all good workers are good leader.

10.   Never demean subordinates in the eyes of others.

A person cannot be called leader without a follower. A leader is only as good as the people he leads.



A Brief Training Guideline on Four Basic Functions of Management for entry Supervisor level.


I.                  MOTIVATION

It is vital for a leader to have knowledge of management functions in order to be successful in leading his/her followers.

A manager usually manages others based on inherent individual characteristics curved by experiences and lessons learned.

II.               PRESENTATION


1.    Define the meaning of management
2.    Define the four basic functions of management
3.    Differentiate and cite examples of each functions of management
4.    Be able to think of things observed that needed improvement or done.
5.    Be able to select common observation  and apply the four basic functions of management

 III.            STAGE I

* The person or persons who control or direct a business or other enterprise
* Skill in managing, executive ability
* Judicious use of means to accomplish an end

1.    Planning
2.    Organizing
3.    Implementing
4.    Control & Measurement

 An act of formulating a program for a definite course of action 
 A formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve

To put together into an orderly, functional, structured whole
To arrange in a desired pattern or structure
Assembling required resources to attain organizational objectives

Act of accomplishing some aim or executing some order
Is the carrying out, execution or practice of a plan, method or any design for doing something.  As such, implementation is the action that must follow any preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen.
Control and Measurement:
To exercise restraining or governing influence over; to check; to counteract; to restrain; to regulate; to govern; to overpower.
Is a collection of quantitative data. A measurement is made by comparing quantity or quality with standard unit.
 To have a better and easier understanding of this lesson is to ask these following questions as you go along with its function.

Planning- What needs to be done?
Organizing- Who will do the task/s?

Implementing- How should the task/s be done? When should this task/s be done? What do you need to accomplish the task/s?
Control & Measurement- Supervison, Checking, time duration and evaluation                      

 IV.             CONCLUSION:
In order for you to develop and practice this lesson on management, I would like you to think and write some observations that need improvement.

As a manager, how will you handle and apply the four basic functions of management

Basic Functions                            Describe Formulation of Management
Of Management                                                 Functions

__Planning                                    Proper control of Keys
    Organizing                                A designated person to issue and
                                                              Receive keys. Checked keys are
                                                              Complete and key cabinet is locked
                                                              At all times.

Implementing                                    Laundry Attendant is designated to
                                                              Issue, receive and checks keys  and
                                                                Keeps key cabinet locked at all

Control and Measurement              Assistant Executive Housekeeper
                                                              Or Executive Housekeeper checks

                                                                 Key cabinet and checks that all
                                                                 Keys are inside the key cabinet.

 V.               Assignment:
Next topic for the next training session is how to prepare a learner by the trainer / How to train a traineee

Three Elements of Goal Achievers

 * 3 Elements of GOAL ACHIEVERS


                        3   Achievement
                       2     Determination


Start here: Having vision, determination and finally achievement.

Friday, January 4, 2013

Santa's Town

Had a wonderful sightseeing at Santa's Town.
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 A tour in Bryan Texas where professional artists created "Santa's Town" with special themes presented in each section of the town.

Lots of viewers from different parts of Texas and even visitors from other states came to see the place.

It is amazing!!!!!
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